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Major depression with psychotic features

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Psychotic depression; Delusional depression

Major depression with psychotic features is a mental disorder in which a person has depression along with loss of touch with reality (psychosis).

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  • Causes

    The cause is unknown. A family or personal history of depression or psychotic illness makes you more likely to develop this condition.

  • Symptoms

    People with psychotic depression have symptoms of depression and psychosis.

    Psychosis is a loss of contact with reality. It usually includes:

    • Delusions: False beliefs about what is taking place or who one is
    • Hallucinations: Seeing or hearing things that aren't there

    The types of delusions and hallucinations are often related to your depressed feelings. For example, some people may hear voices criticizing them, or telling them that they don't deserve to live. The person may develop false beliefs about their body, for example, that they have cancer.

  • Exams and Tests

    Your health care provider will perform a physical exam and ask questions about your medical history and symptoms. Your answers and certain questionnaires can help your provider diagnose this condition and determine how severe it may be.

    Blood and urine tests, and possibly a brain scan may be done to rule out other medical conditions with similar symptoms.

  • Treatment

    Psychotic depression requires immediate medical care and treatment.

    Treatment usually involves antidepressant and antipsychotic medicine. You may only need antipsychotic medicine for a short period of time.

    Electroconvulsive therapy can help treat depression with psychotic symptoms. However, medicine is usually tried first.

  • Outlook (Prognosis)

    This is a serious condition. You will need immediate treatment and close monitoring by a provider.

    You may need to take medicine for a long time to prevent the depression from coming back. Depression symptoms are more likely to return than psychotic symptoms.

  • Possible Complications

    The risk of suicide is much higher in people with depression with psychotic symptoms than in those without psychosis. You may need to stay in the hospital if you have thoughts of suicide. The safety of other people must also be considered.

  • When to Contact a Medical Professional

    If you are thinking about hurting yourself or others, call your local emergency number (such as 911) right away. Or, go to the hospital emergency room. DO NOT delay.

    You can also call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-8255 (1-800-273-TALK), where you can receive free and confidential support anytime day or night.

    Call your provider right away if:

    • You hear voices that are not there.
    • You have frequent crying spells with little or no reason.
    • Your depression is disrupting work, school, or family life.
    • You think that your current medicines are not working or are causing side effects. Never change or stop any medicines without first talking to your provider.
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Related Information

  Major depression...Psychosis    

References

American Psychiatric Association. Major depressive disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013;160-168.

Fava M, SD Ostergaard, Cassano P. Mood disorders: depressive disorders (major depressive disorder). In: Stern TA, Fava M, Wilens TE, Rosenbaum JF, eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 29.

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Review Date: 12/28/2016  

Reviewed By: Fred K. Berger, MD, addiction and forensic psychiatrist, Scripps Memorial Hospital, La Jolla, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Editorial update 06/28/2017.

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